Sunday, June 16, 2013

British Journal of Criminology 53(4)

British Journal of Criminology, July 2013: Volume 53, Issue 4

Insider Accounts of Institutional Corruption: Examining the Social Organization of Unethical Behaviour
Garry C. Gray
Institutional corruption involves influences that implicitly or purposively serve to distort the independence of a professional in a position of trust. The concept brings into focus the everyday norms, practices and scripts of professional life that can systematically influence unethical behaviours. To make visible these often implicit influences, insider accounts are particularly valuable. This is demonstrated through an analysis of insider accounts by Jack Abramoff, the American lobbyist who was criminally charged in 2006. From these accounts, I develop a typology of techniques that perpetuate the social organization of institutional corruption in lobbying and Congress. More broadly, the institutional corruption concept provides an empirical pathway that can rejuvenate inquiries into the world of professional misconduct and unethical behaviour.

Criminology à La Française: French Academic Exceptionalism
Renaud Colson
On 13 February 2012, a decree established criminology as a new discipline in the French university system. Six months later, the new Ministry of Higher Education and Research rolled back the reform and abolished the newly created section of criminology. Because French university governance remains centralized and corporatist, any project that transforms an interdisciplinary field of research into a fully fledged academic discipline is difficult to carry out, all the more when the latter bears a political and utilitarian dimension as criminology does. It comes, then, as no surprise that, in the hyper-disciplined French university, the disciplinary enterprise of institutionalizing criminology is fraught with difficulties, not least of which is the existence of an undisciplined academia.

Making History: Academic Criminology and Human Rights
Thérèse Murphy and Noel Whitty
David Garland has written that ‘an engagement with human rights is essential for 21st century criminology that aspires to depth and relevance’. But what does it mean to do human rights criminologically? Also, should it be viewed as a new phenomenon or are there histories of engagement with rights to be found within academic criminology? And what is the relationship between any such histories and the methods and goals that are influencing contemporary criminological positions on human rights? This article engages with these questions, though it will not answer them. Its goal is a preliminary one: to explain why academic criminology ought to enquire into its own history with human rights. Given the range of engagements with, and repudiations of, rights discourse over time, that history is likely to be complex. But understanding it, we suggest, is important for criminology going forward.

Shaking the Foundations: On the Moral Economy of Criminal Justice
Philip Whitehead and Paul Crawshaw
During the last three decades, criminal justice, in England and Wales, has been subjected to ethico-cultural disturbances. Fiscal realignments, punitive and bureaucratic expansion, reducing cultural divides between probation and prison, and the diminution of psychosocial curiosity are some of the features which have eroded the concept of moral economy. There are also pressing threats and dangers, during 2010–15, as the criminal justice system is embedded within a new material platform through deeper integration into the circuits of capital accumulation and market expansion. This article advances an intellectual case for reanimating the lineaments of moral economy through dialectical contestation, to renew interest in justice, truth and fairness, by forging links between Judaeo-Christian ethics and Continental philosophy.

‘With Scenes of Blood and Pain’: Crime Control and the Punitive Imagination of The Meth Project
Travis Linnemann, Laura Hanson, and L. Susan Williams
This article takes aim at an image-based methamphetamine (meth) intervention programme in the United States, to reveal disparate images of meth users organized along a binary system of value, pitting the sexual vulnerabilities of young women against the violent predation of young men. We argue the programme structures a particular visuality or way of seeing the supposed ills of meth use that agitates white middle-class social anxieties, through a ‘meth epidemic’ unfairly imagined as ‘white’ and ‘rural’. Following self-justifying drug war logics, the project battles an epidemic it helps to create and sustain. Thus, we see the programme as an important site of cultural production where its punitive visualities contribute to structures of ideological penal policies and practices or ‘imaginary penalities’ that obfuscate alternatives for harm reduction and the ills of the neo-liberal order.

Storytelling at the Police Station: The Canteen Culture Revisited
Merlijn van Hulst
Police storytelling is an understudied aspect of police culture(s). In the literature, two views can be found. One view is that storytelling helps officers to learn the craft of policing. Another view is that storytelling is merely part of a ‘canteen culture’ that deals with the lack of excitement in real police work. On the basis of a two-year ethnographic study in a Dutch police station, I claim that the practice of storytelling is a crucial part of everyday police station life. However, the work police stories do and the forms they have differ from one backstage context to the next.

Public Assessments of the Police in Rural and Urban China: A Theoretical Extension and Empirical Investigation
Ivan Y. Sun, Yuning Wu, and Rong Hu
Although the past decade has witnessed the burgeoning of studies on Chinese evaluations of the police, several issues remain under-addressed, including the perceptions of rural residents, the multidimensional nature of assessments of the police, and the effects of social and political activities. This study addresses these concerns by analysing data collected from both rural and urban China. Contrary to Western evidence, villagers were found to display lower degrees of satisfaction with their police than urbanites. Chinese trust in the police is one-dimensional in nature and is distinguishable from and predicted by satisfaction with the police. Chinese assessments of the police were significantly linked to trust in neighbourhood committees, participation in conflict resolution, perceived law and order, and quality of life.

The Scammers Persuasive Techniques Model: Development of a Stage Model to Explain the Online Dating Romance Scam
Monica T. Whitty
This study examined the persuasive techniques employed by criminals in the online dating romance scam. Twenty participants were interviewed, including financial and non-financial victims. The paper first examines errors in decision making and finds victims make similar errors compared with victims of other mass marketing frauds. It is also proposes that the near-win phenomenon is useful in explaining why individuals remain in the scam and why some become re-victimized. A model called the Scammers Persuasive Technique Model is developed to highlight the processes involved in the scam. It provides a description of the victim and highlights how criminals groom victims prior to any financial requests. The various stages that follow to keep the victim involved in the scam are highlighted.

The Influence of Event Characteristics and Actors’ Behaviour on the Outcome of Violent Events: Comparing Lethal with Non-Lethal Events
Soenita Minakoemarie Ganpat, Joanne van der Leun, and Paul Nieuwbeerta
This study examines to what extent event characteristics and actors’ behaviour contribute to the escalation of an event into a lethal outcome. We examined Dutch court files of 267 events in which offenders were convicted for either lethal violence (i.e. homicide, N = 126) or non-lethal violence (i.e. attempted homicide, N = 141). Pronounced differences were found between lethal versus non-lethal events with respect to event characteristics and to actors’ behaviour in particular. Also, several situational characteristics including event characteristics and actors’ behaviour were found to be significantly predictive of the lethality of violent events, especially regarding alcohol use by victims, firearm use by offenders, victim precipitation and the absence of third parties.

Social Forces 91(4)

Social Forces, June 2013: Volume 91, Issue 4

Gender Inequality

Stay or Leave?: Externalization of Job Mobility and the Effect on the U.S. Gender Earnings Gap, 1979–2009
Anne-Kathrin Kronberg
As jobs in the United States become less secure and traditional job ladders deteriorate, employees increasingly change employers to build their career. This article explores how this shift affects gender earnings disparities. I find that the effect of changing employers depends on whether changes occur in “good” or “bad” jobs and whether individuals leave voluntarily or involuntarily. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 1979–2009, gender disparities narrowed among voluntary leavers in good jobs and involuntary leavers in bad jobs. Disparities stagnated among voluntary leavers in bad jobs. The gender gap actually increased among involuntary leavers in good jobs. Although the causal mechanisms driving these trends are still unknown, the results indicate that the externalization opens opportunities primarily to those who are already in good positions.

Ideological Wage Inequalities?: The Technical/Social Dualism and the Gender Wage Gap in Engineering
Erin A. Cech
Can professional cultures contribute to wage inequality? Recent literature has demonstrated how widely held cultural biases reproduce ascriptive inequalities in the workforce, but cultural belief systems within professions have largely been ignored as mechanisms of intra-profession inequality. I argue that cultural ideologies about professional work, which may seem benign and have little salience outside of a profession’s boundaries, play an important role in reproducing wage inequalities therein. Using nationally representative data on engineers, I demonstrate that patterns of sex segregation and gendered wage allocation in engineering break consistently along the lines predicted by its “technical/social dualism”—an ideological distinction between “technical” and “social” engineering subfields and work activities. After explaining how these findings deepen our understanding of gender inequality in engineering, the article discusses how the consideration of professional cultures may open up fresh areas of inquiry into intra-profession inequality more generally.

Up the Down Staircase: Women’s Upward Mobility and the Wage Penalty for Occupational Feminization, 1970–2007
Hadas Mandel
This study examines the long-term trends of two parallel and related gender effects, in light of the hypothesis that highly rewarded occupations will be the most penalized by the process of feminization. Using multilevel models of the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series data from 1970 to 2007, the study analyzes trends in women’s occupational mobility and juxtaposes these trends with trends in the effects of feminization on occupational pay across diverse occupational wage groups. The findings reveal two opposing processes of gender (in)equality: during this period, many women had impressive success in entering highly rewarded occupations. Simultaneously, however, the negative effect of feminization on the pay levels of these occupations intensified, particularly in high-paid and male-typed occupations. Consequently, women found themselves moving “up the down staircase.” The findings confirm the dynamic nature of gender discrimination and have broad implications for our understanding of the devaluation and exclusion mechanisms discussed in earlier literature.

Gender, the Labor Process and Dignity at Work
Martha Crowley
This study brings together gender inequality and labor process research to investigate how divergent control structures generate inequality in work experiences for women and men. Content-coded data on 155 work groups are analyzed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis to identify combinations of control techniques encountered by female and male work groups and their relationship to outcomes measuring workplace dignity. Results suggest that male work groups more often encounter persuasive “bundles” of control that enhance autonomy, creativity, meaningfulness and satisfaction, while female work groups confront more coercive arrangements, especially direct supervision, that erode these and other foundations of dignity at work. I conclude with implications of these findings relative to understandings of the labor process, workplace sex segregation and forms of inequality not so easily quantified in dominant approaches to stratification.


The Bounded Polity: The Limits to Mexican Emigrant Political Participation
Roger Waldinger, Thomas Soehl
International migration yields pervasive cross-border social engagements, yet homeland political involvements are modest to minimal. This contrast reflects the ways in which the distinctive characteristics of expatriate political life impede participation in the polity that emigrants have left behind. As polities are bounded, moving to the territory of a different state yields political detachment: diminishing awareness of home country political matters and weakened ties to the home state’s electoral institutions. To assess this argument, we use a representative survey of the Mexican-born population in the United States to analyze two critical conditions for participation in expatriate elections: emigrants’ ability to demonstrate eligibility to vote and their knowledge about voting procedures. We find clear signs of detachment. Most Mexican emigrants are not in a position to participate in homeland politics. Social ties, while pervasive, are associated with more knowledge only for the very small segment of the most engaged.

Social Citizenship, Integration and Collective Action: Immigrant Civic Engagement in the United States
Kim Ebert, Dina G. Okamoto
Collective action has been examined in studies of worker insurgency, homeless protest, the Civil Rights movement and white backlash against racial minorities. Relatively few studies, however, focus on noncontentious forms of immigrant collective action. Utilizing a new data set comprising over 1,000 immigrant civic events, we examine whether the civic and political environment within metropolitan areas affect civic engagement. Our results indicate that political opportunities and resources did not have uniform effects, but that institutional threats to immigrants deterred civic activity. Furthermore, we find that local restrictive efforts instigated solidarity events, while outreach efforts directed at immigrants facilitated community improvement projects. These findings suggest that conditions intensifying group boundaries between immigrants and natives and encouraging collective efficacy are important predictors of immigrant civic engagement.

Cumulative Causation, Coethnic Settlement Maturity and Mexican Immigration to U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1995–2000
James D. Bachmeier
This article applies the tenets of Massey’s (1999) cumulative causation theory of migration to explain variation in aggregate patterns of Mexican migration to U.S. metropolitan destinations during the late 1990s. Analogous to sending contexts, results suggest that the dynamics of migration vary substantially with the maturity of the Mexican settlement community within destinations (approximated here using characteristics of the resident Mexican-origin population and distance from the Mexican border). The rate of immigration between 1995 and 2000 was determined overwhelmingly by the rate a decade earlier, but the extent to which this was the case depended significantly on the level of destination settlement maturity. The immigration rate into newly emerging destinations was governed to a greater extent by pull factors in the local labor and housing market (e.g., unemployment and cost of living) than in more established destinations where the rate of immigration varied largely independently of such factors. Settlement maturity played a more direct role in explaining variation in the demographic composition of new immigration flows, and was inversely related to the percentage of adult inflows comprising unaccompanied males. The results are consistent with the hypothesis recently advanced by Light (2006), asserting that migratory shifts away from traditional destinations beginning in the late 1990s were driven, at least in part, by saturation of labor and housing markets resulting from network-driven migration. Implications of the findings for related avenues of research are discussed.

Political Sociology

Apology and Redress: Escaping the Dustbin of History in the Postsegregationist South
Gary Alan Fine
How at moments of dramatic change and a shifting social context do political actors alter their public identities? Put differently, how do political figures respond when positions with which they have been closely identified are no longer morally and electorally defensible and must be altered? Responses to identity challenge within institutional spheres require an expansion of the theory of accounts to an approach that examines shifts in cultural fields. Those challenged must signal adherence to newly claimed values. The standard view of accounts examines interpersonal justifications outside of institutional pressures, downplaying social location. Extending a theory of accounts to political actors requires recognizing appeals to audiences and distribution of resources. In the political arena the presentation of accounts carries reputational dangers. Presenting excuses, politicians deny agency, placing themselves at jeopardy as incompetent. Justifications require a credulous audience that overlooks possible insincerity. As a result, other strategies are necessary. Political actors rely on apologies or redress to demonstrate a revised self to stakeholders, strategies based on position, resources and audience. To analyze the realignment of reputation in unsettled times, I examine the postsegregation careers of Governor George Wallace of Alabama and Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. Both moved from being icons of segregation to (claimed) devotees of racial equality, but because of their political location they moved in different ways. Given their context, Wallace apologized, while Thurmond provided redress to offended communities.


The Sense of Place behind Segregating Practices: An Ethnographic A
Marco Garrido
The literature on cities in the developing world equates segregation with the proliferation of enclaves and slums and tends to overlook how the people associated with those places are further segregated in public spaces and enclaves. To account for the symbolic partitioning of Metro Manila, I document the segregating practices of the residents of enclaves (villagers) and slums (squatters). These practices reveal a well-developed sense of place on both sides, a commitment to the relative status positioning of the two groups as expressed through their separation in space. A sense of place explains why squatters and villagers engage in segregating practices. It also enables us to identify other spatial practices that conform to or challenge its logic. Integrating practices are largely consistent with a sense of place, while desegregating practices challenge it and may set up or advance contentious situations. By using this approach we are better able to understand how class patterns of residential segregation are extended to encompass virtually all urban spaces where class interaction occurs.

Race and Ethnicity

The Marginalized “Model” Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans
Jun Xu, Jennifer C. Lee
In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim’s (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial valorization and civic acceptance/ostracism. Using selected years from the General Social Survey, our analyses provide support for the multidimensional racial triangulation perspective as opposed to a singular hierarchical approach, although findings do not match all predictions by the racial triangulation thesis. Our results also suggest that on average whites are more likely than blacks to have more favorable views of the relative positions of Asians, particularly for family commitment, nonviolence and wealth, but blacks are more likely to assume racially egalitarian views than do whites.

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Neighborhood Attainments in the Transition to Adulthood
Raymond R. Swisher, Danielle C. Kuhl, Jorge M. Chavez
This paper examines racial and ethnic differences in locational attainments in the transition to adulthood, using longitudinal data about neighborhoods of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. It examines place stratification and life course models of locational attainment during the 1990s, a period during which neighborhood poverty rates were declining for many groups. The analysis reveals durable inequalities in neighborhood poverty from adolescence to young adulthood, particularly for blacks and Hispanic origin subgroups. Family socioeconomic status and emerging educational attainments are associated with decreases in neighborhood poverty, with blacks receiving a stronger return from educational attainments than whites. Despite the benefits of education, racial and ethnic minorities remain more likely to live in considerably more disadvantaged neighborhoods in young adulthood than whites.


Why Do Unemployed Americans Blame Themselves While Israelis Blame the System?
Ofer Sharone
This article provides a new account of American job seekers’ individualized understandings of their labor-market difficulties, and more broadly, of how structural conditions shape subjective responses. Unemployed white-collar workers in the U.S. tend to interpret their labor market difficulties as reflecting flaws in themselves, while Israelis tend to perceive flaws in the hiring system. These different responses have profound individual and societal implications. Drawing on in-depth interviews with unemployed job seekers and participant observations at support groups in the U.S. and Israel, this article shows how different labor market institutions give rise to distinct job search games, which I call the chemistry game in the U.S. and the specs game in Israel. Challenging the broad cultural explanations of the unemployment experience in the existing literature, this article shows how subjective responses to unemployment are generated by the search experiences associated with institutionally rooted job search games.


Stutter-Step Models of Performance in School
Stephen L. Morgan, Theodore S. Leenman, Jennifer J. Todd, Kim A. Weeden
To evaluate a stutter-step model of academic performance in high school, this article adopts a unique measure of the beliefs of 12,591 high school sophomores from the Education Longitudinal Study, 2002–2006. Verbatim responses to questions on occupational plans are coded to capture specific job titles, the listing of multiple jobs, and the listing of multiple jobs with divergent characteristics. The educational requirements of detailed jobs, as specified in the Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network database, are then matched to all jobs that students list within their plans. Students with uncertain beliefs about their occupational futures are then shown to have lower levels of commitment to and performance in school. These results support the conjecture that uncertainty about the future has consequences for the short-run behavior that determines important educational outcomes, beyond the effects that are commonly attributed to existing models of performance.

Legal Status and Educational Transitions for Mexican and Central American Immigrant Youth
Emily Greenman, Matthew Hall
This study uses the Survey of Income and Program Participation to infer the legal status of Mexican and Central American immigrant youth and to investigate its relationship with educational attainment. We assess differences by legal status in high school graduation and college enrollment, decompose differences in college enrollment into the probability of high school graduation and the probability of high school graduates’ enrollment in college and estimate the contributions of personal and family background characteristics to such differences. Results show that undocumented students are less likely than documented students to both graduate from high school and enroll in college, and differences in college enrollment cannot be explained by family background characteristics. We conclude that legal status is a critical axis of stratification for Latinos.

Social Psychology

Position and Disposition Position and Disposition: The Contextual Development of Human Values
Kyle C. Longest, Steven Hitlin, Stephen Vaisey
Research on the importance of values often focuses primarily on one domain of social predictors (e.g., economic) or limits its scope to a single dimension of values. We conduct a simultaneous analysis of a wide range of theoretically important social influences and a more complete range of individuals’ value orientations, focusing both on value ratings and rankings. Results indicate that traditional institutions such as religion and parenthood are associated with more concern for the welfare of others and maintaining the status quo, whereas more individually oriented occupational factors like higher income and self-employment are linked to achievement and change-related values. Yet several factors, such as education and gender, have complex associations when individual values are examined as part of a coherent system rather than in isolation.

Hidden Paths from Morality to Cooperation: Moral Judgments Promote Trust and Trustworthiness
Brent Simpson, Ashley Harrell, Robb Willer
Classic sociological solutions to cooperation problems were rooted in the moral judgments group members make about one another’s behaviors, but more recent research on prosocial behaviors has largely ignored this foundational work. Here, we extend theoretical accounts of the social effect of moral judgments. Where scholars have emphasized the roles of moral judgments in clarifying moral boundaries and punishing deviants, we present two less intuitive paths from moral judgments to social behavior. We argue that those who engage in moral judgments subsequently act more morally. Further, we argue that group members anticipate the more moral behavior of judges, trusting them more under situations of risk and uncertainty. We thus establish paths from moral judgments to the primary foundations of voluntary cooperation: trust and trustworthiness. The results of three experiments support the predicted effects: Participants randomly assigned to make moral judgments were more trustworthy in subsequent interactions (Study 1). A follow-up experiment sought to clarify the underlying mechanism, showing that making moral judgments led individuals to view themselves as more moral (Study 2). Finally, audience members anticipated the greater trustworthiness of moral judges (Study 3).

Sunday, June 9, 2013

American Sociological Review 78(3)

American Sociological Review, June 2013: Volume 78, Issue 3

Social Isolation in America: An Artifact
Anthony Paik and Kenneth Sanchagrin
This article examines whether existing estimates of network size and social isolation, drawn from egocentric name generators across several representative samples, suffer from systematic biases linked to interviewers. Using several analytic approaches, we find that estimates of network size found in the 2004 and 2010 General Social Surveys (GSS), as well as other representative samples, were affected by significant interviewer effects. Across these surveys, we find a negative correlation between interviewer effects and mean network size. In the 2004 GSS, levels of social connectivity are strongly linked to interviewer-level variation and reflect the fact that some interviewers obtained highly improbable levels of social isolation. In the 2010 GSS, we observe larger interviewer effects in two versions of the questionnaire in which training and fatigue effects among interviewers were more likely. Results support the argument that many estimates of social connectivity are biased by interviewer effects. Some interviewers’ failure to elicit network data makes inferences, such as the argument that networks have become smaller, an artifact. Overall, this study highlights the importance of interviewer effects for network data collection and raises questions about other survey items with similar issues.

The Capitalist Machine: Computerization, Workers’ Power, and the Decline in Labor’s Share within U.S. Industries
Tali Kristal
This article addresses an important trend in contemporary income inequality—a decline in labor’s share of national income and a rise in capitalists’ profits share. Since the late 1970s, labor’s share declined by 6 percent across the U.S. private sector. As I will show, this overall decline was due to a large decline (5 to 14 percent) in construction, manufacturing, and transportation combined with an increase, albeit small (2 to 5 percent), in labor’s share within finance and services industries. To explain the overall decline and the diverse trends across industries, I argue that the main factor leading to the decline in labor’s share was the erosion in workers’ positional power, and this erosion was partly an outcome of class-biased technological change, namely computerization that favored employers over most employees. I combine data from several sources to test for the independent effects of workers’ positional power indicators (i.e., unionization, capital concentration, import penetration, and unemployment) and the direct and indirect effects of computer technology on changes in labor’s share within 43 nonagricultural private industries and 451 manufacturing industries between 1969 and 2007. Results from error correction models with fixed-effect estimators support the study’s arguments.

The Care Economy? Gender, Economic Restructuring, and Job Polarization in the U.S. Labor Market
Rachel E. Dwyer
The U.S. job structure became increasingly polarized at the turn of the twenty-first century as high- and low-wage jobs grew strongly and many middle-wage jobs declined. Prior research on the sources of uneven job growth that focuses on technological change and weakening labor market institutions struggles to explain crucial features of job polarization, especially the growth of low-wage jobs and gender and racial differences in job growth. I argue that theories of the rise of care work in the U.S. economy explain key dynamics of job polarization—including robust growth at the bottom of the labor market and gender and racial differences in job growth—better than the alternative theories. By seeing care work as a distinctive form of labor, care work theories highlight different dimensions of economic restructuring than are emphasized in prior research on job polarization. I show that care work jobs contributed significantly and increasingly to job polarization from 1983 to 2007, growing at the top and bottom of the job structure but not at all in the middle. I close by considering whether the care economy will continue to reinforce job polarization, or whether it will provide new opportunities for revived growth in middle-wage jobs.

The Corner and the Crew: The Influence of Geography and Social Networks on Gang Violence
Andrew V. Papachristos, David M. Hureau, and Anthony A. Braga
Nearly a century of empirical research examines how neighborhood properties influence a host of phenomena such as crime, poverty, health, civic engagement, immigration, and economic inequality. Theoretically bundled within these neighborhood effects are institutions’ and actors’ social networks that are the foundation of other neighborhood-level processes such as social control, mobilization, and cultural assimilation. Yet, despite such long-standing theoretical links between neighborhoods and social networks, empirical research rarely considers or measures dimensions of geography and social network mechanisms simultaneously. The present study seeks to fill this gap by analyzing how both geography and social networks influence an important social problem in urban America: gang violence. Using detailed data on fatal and non-fatal shootings, we examine effects of geographic proximity, organizational memory, and additional group processes (e.g., reciprocity, transitivity, and status seeking) on gang violence in Chicago and Boston. Results show adjacency of gang turf and prior conflict between gangs are strong predictors of subsequent gang violence. Furthermore, important network processes, including reciprocity and status seeking, also contribute to observed patterns of gang violence. In fact, we find that these spatial and network processes mediate racial effects, suggesting the primacy of place and the group in generating gang violence.

Gender and Twenty-First-Century Corporate Crime: Female Involvement and the Gender Gap in Enron-Era Corporate Frauds
Darrell J. Steffensmeier, Jennifer Schwartz, and Michael Roche
We extend the scarce research on corporate crime to include gender by developing and testing a gendered focal concerns and crime opportunities framework that predicts minimal and marginal female involvement in corporate criminal networks. Lacking centralized information, we developed a rich database covering 83 corporate frauds involving 436 defendants. We extracted information from indictments and secondary sources on corporate conspiracy networks (e.g., co-conspirator roles, company positions, and distribution of profit). Findings support the gendered paradigm. Typically, women were not part of conspiracy groups. When women were involved, they had more minor roles and made less profit than their male co-conspirators. Two main pathways defined female involvement: relational (close personal relationship with a main male co-conspirator) and utility (occupied a financial-gateway corporate position). Paralleling gendered labor market segmentation processes that limit and shape women’s entry into economic roles, sex segregation in corporate criminality is pervasive, suggesting only subtle shifts in gender socialization and women’s opportunities for significant white-collar crimes. Our findings do not comport with images of highly placed or powerful white-collar female criminals.

Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?
Alexandra Killewald and Margaret Gough
Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages.

The Shadow of Indebtedness: Bridewealth and Norms Constraining Female Reproductive Autonomy
Christine Horne, F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo, and Naa Dodua Dodoo
Bridewealth is fundamental to marriage in Africa. Anthropological research provides substantial information regarding characteristics of the bridewealth transaction, but scholars and policymakers know little about its consequences for women in contemporary Africa. We argue that the payment of bridewealth strengthens normative constraints on women’s autonomy in the reproductive domain. We test and find support for our argument using a unique vignette experiment conducted with rural women in the Volta Region of Ghana.

Social Psychology Quarterly 76(2)

Social Psychology Quarterly, June 2013: Volume 76, Issue 2 

Switching Dynamics and the Stress Process
Benjamin Cornwell

The Affective Structure of Stereotype Content: Behavior and Emotion in Intergroup Context
Kimberly B. Rogers, Tobias Schröder, and Wolfgang Scholl

The Embedded Self: A Social Networks Approach to Identity Theory
Mark H. Walker and Freda B. Lynn

High School Religious Context and Reports of Same-Sex Attraction and Sexual Identity in Young Adulthood
Lindsey Wilkinson and Jennifer Pearson

The ANNALS of the AAPSS 648

The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, July 2013: Volume 648

Introduction: Youth Migration and Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries
Fatima Juárez, Thomas LeGrand, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Susheela Singh, and Véronique Hertrich

Migration in the Context of Transitions to Adulthood: Schooling, Employment and Family Formation

Mexican Adolescent Migration to the United States and Transitions to Adulthood
René Zenteno, Silvia E. Giorguli, and Edith Gutiérrez

Migration and the Transition to Adulthood in Contemporary Malawi
Kathleen Beegle and Michelle Poulin

Social Exclusion and Young Rural-Urban Migrants’ Integration into a Host Society in China
Juhua Yang

Female Migrants and the Transition to Adulthood in Greater Jakarta
Ariane Utomo, Anna Reimondos, Iwu Dwisetyani Utomo, Peter McDonald, and Terence Hull

Transitioning from School to Work as a Mexican 1.5er: Upward Mobility and Glass-Ceiling Assimilation among College Students in California
Georgina Rojas-García

Consequences of Migration for Health, Reproductive Outcomes, and Childbearing

Dimensions of Rural-to-Urban Migration and Premarital Pregnancy in Kenya
Hongwei Xu, Blessing U. Mberu, Rachel E. Goldberg, and Nancy Luke

Exploring Associations between Mobility and Sexual Experiences among Unmarried Young People: Evidence from India
Rajib Acharya, K. G. Santhya, and Shireen J. Jejeebhoy

Migration as a Risk Factor for HIV Infection among Youths in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from the DHS
Monica A. Magadi

Migration Strategies and Consequences

Youth Mobility in an Isolated Sahelian Population of Mali
Claudine Sauvain-Dugerdil

Adolescent Migration in Rural Africa as a Challenge to Gender and Intergenerational Relationships: Evidence from Mali
Véronique Hertrich and Marie Lesclingand

Unaccompanied Young Migrants from Africa: The Case of Mauritania
Fabienne Tanon and Abdoulaye Sow

Migration and Intergenerational Responsibilities: Implications for Young Senegalese Migrants’ Transition to Adulthood
Nathalie Mondain, Alioune Diagne, and Sara Randall

Journal of Marriage and Family 75(3)

Journal of Marriage and Family, June 2013: Volume 75, Issue 3

Brief Reports

Measuring Maternal Nonstandard Work in Survey Data
Rachel Dunifon, Ariel Kalil, Danielle A. Crosby, Jessica Houston Su and Thomas DeLeire

Low Birth Weight and Parental Investment: Do Parents Favor the Fittest Child?
Jamie L. Lynch and Ryan Brooks

Education, Marriage, and Marital Stability

Gender and Socioeconomic Status Differences in First and Second Marriage Formation
Kevin Shafer and Spencer L. James

Women's Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective
Derek A. Kreager, Richard B. Felson, Cody Warner and Marin R. Wenger

Special Section on Within-Household Distribution

Researching Within-Household Distribution: Overview, Developments, Debates, and Methodological Challenges
Fran Bennett

Measuring Differences in Living Standards Within Households
Sara Cantillon

Unpacking Within-Household Gender Differences in Partners' Subjective Benefits From Household Income
Jerome De Henau and Susan Himmelweit

Sharing of Resources Within the Family and the Economics of Household Decision Making
Susan Himmelweit, Cristina Santos, Almudena Sevilla and Catherine Sofer

Reflections on a Cross-National Qualitative Study of Within-Household Finances
Charlott Nyman, Lasse Reinikainen and Janet Stocks

Of General Interest

Profiles of Risk: Maternal Health, Socioeconomic Status, and Child Health
Jessica Halliday Hardie and Nancy S. Landale

Marital Quality and Health Over 20 Years: A Growth Curve Analysis
Richard B. Miller, Cody S. Hollist, Joseph Olsen and David Law

Shared Reality and Grounded Feelings During Courtship: Do They Matter for Marital Success?
April C. Wilson and Ted L. Huston

Repartnering Following Divorce: Implications for Older Fathers' Relations With Their Adult Children
Claire M. Noël-Miller

Parental Financial Assistance and Young Adults' Relationships With Parents and Well-being
Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson

Predicting a Partner's End-of-Life Preferences, or Substituting One's Own?
Sara M. Moorman and Megumi Inoue

A Longitudinal Examination of Support, Self-Esteem, and Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Parenting Efficacy
Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Amy B. Guimond, Kimberly A. Updegraff and Laudan B. Jahromi

Nonmaternal Care's Association With Mother's Parenting Sensitivity: A Case of Self-Selection Bias?
Kei M. Nomaguchi and Alfred DeMaris

Core Self-Evaluations, Work–Family Conflict, and Burnout
Victor Y. Haines III, Steve Harvey, Pierre Durand and Alain Marchand

Crime & Delinquency 59(4)

Crime & Delinquency, June 2013: Volume 59, Issue 4

Active Supervision and Its Impact Upon Parolee Recidivism Rates
Michael Ostermann
Studies that compare recidivism rates between parolees and unconditionally released inmates typically attach these statuses upon release, and then follow these groups until they either fail or meet the censor date. However, this method of identifying former inmates as parolees does not comport with how parolees are conceptualized by the agencies that supervise them. Parole boards identify parolees as released inmates whom they actively supervise. This study explores the relative impact of this strategy of attaching the parole status compared with the traditional strategy used throughout the recidivism literature. I use 3 years of postrelease data from all prisoners released from 2005 to 2007 in a highly populated state on the East Coast (N = 29,299). My findings indicate that after 3 years, parolees are predicted to recidivate at a 1% lower rate compared with unconditionally released inmates when the time of active supervision is not considered. However, parolees who are assigned supervision terms of at least 3 years evidence a predicted 8% lower recidivism rate when compared with unconditionally released inmates. These findings demonstrate that parole boards can be successful at isolating those under their active supervision from reengaging in criminal activities when compared with those who are not supervised post-release, but that parole does not have long-lasting rehabilitative effects. This lack of long-term impact is likely associated with a parole board’s focus on offenses that occur solely during the course of active supervision that may create incentive to manage cases in such a way that undermines the pursuit of long-term rehabilitative goals in favor of working toward short-term successful discharges.

Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults
Steven R. Wood and Anthony Buttaro, Jr.
Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners (n = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be “importing” characteristics that put them at more risk of involvement in assaults. Next, more than 50% of assault victims were themselves the perpetrators of assault, and significant percentages of inmates reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses and physical and sexual victimizations. With other studies linking PTSD and being assaulted with revictimization and violence toward others, substance abuse, and poorer psychiatric outcomes, a study implication is providing inmates with effective trauma-relevant treatments.

What a Girl Wants, What a Girl Needs: Findings From a Gender-Specific Focus Group Study
Crystal A. Garcia and Jodi Lane
Most arrests among girls are attributable to status offenses and property crimes; however, the number of girls arrested for assault and other violent crimes is increasing. Although arrest patterns among girls may be changing, the way the system responds has not. Correctional programs have almost always been designed with the male offender in mind—ignoring the needs of at-risk and delinquent girls. The paucity of gender-specific programming might have seemed acceptable in the past; however, academics and practitioners now agree that girls’ needs can no longer be ignored. The purpose of this article is to (a) report on findings from a focus group study that examines what at-risk and delinquent girls claim they want and need from the system, (b) determine whether what the girls say they want is similar to what the literature says they need, and (c) provide practical recommendations that practitioners can use to improve the status of girls in their care.

The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty
Robert DeFina and Lance Hannon
During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction. Relying on a state-level panel spanning 1980 to 2004, the study measures the impact of incarceration on three poverty indexes. Estimates are generated using instrumental variable techniques to account for possible simultaneity between incarceration and poverty. The evidence indicates that growing incarceration has significantly increased poverty, regardless of which index is used to gauge poverty. Indeed, the official poverty rate would have fallen considerably during the period had it not been for mass incarceration.

Housing for the "Worst of the Worst" Inmates: Public Support for Supermax Prisons
Daniel P. Mears, Christina Mancini, Kevin M. Beaver, and Marc Gertz
Despite concerns whether supermaximum security prisons violate human rights or prove effective, these facilities have proliferated in America over the past 25 years. This punishment—aimed at the “worst of the worst” inmates and involving 23-hr-per-day single-cell confinement with few privileges or services—has emerged despite little evidence that the public supports it. Based on public opinion survey data, this study identified the extent to which support exists for supermax prisons and so tested three interrelated hypotheses about variation in public views. The focal contention is that support can be linked to groups that are most concerned with symbolic threats, to those most embracing of a belief in individual agency, and to those who have had negative contacts with offenders. The article concludes with a discussion on implications for theory, research, and policy.

Assessing Crime as a Problem: The Relationship Between Residents’ Perception of Crime and Official Crime Rates Over 25 Years
John R. Hipp
This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study finds that tract violent crime is the strongest predictor of residents’ perception of crime. This standardized coefficient was .71 on average over the seven waves. Models simultaneously taking into account both violent and property crime found a consistently strong positive effect for violent crime but a consistently negative effect for property crime. Among types of violent crime, robbery and aggravated assault have the strongest effect on the perception of crime in the tract. Burglary showed a stronger effect on perceptions of crime in the 1970s but a steadily weakening effect since then. There was little evidence that the racial/ethnic composition of the tract affected these perceptions.