Sunday, May 24, 2015

Theory and Society 44(3)

Theory and Society, May 2015: Volume 44, Issue 3

Displaying the state: visual signs and colonial construction in Jordan
Jonathan Endelman
How do colonial states make themselves known to their citizens? Drawing on sociological, post-colonial, and feminist theories, this article argues that colonial authorities make the state visible to its citizens and thereby establish its territoriality. The case of Jordan is considered as a prime example for the visual means of creating state ideological power through the cult of the Hashemite monarch. The origins and logic of this practice must be traced back to the British colonial mandate over the country that operated from 1922 to 1946. When in Jordan, British officials constructed state presence through a variety of methods including building desert forts, designing ornate tribal uniforms for the military, and showing the Jordanian flag in various areas throughout the country. The present account analyzes these and other instances of the display of state power through a reappraisal of the work of Clifford Geertz. This article identifies the foundation of the state-citizen relationship especially for new states in ideological power expressed materially.

The heroic age of American avant-garde art
Paul Lopes
A major contribution of Pierre Bourdieu to the study of art was his analysis of the autonomization of modern art fields. His model of autonomy and legitimacy in modern art was based on a study of the genesis of an avant-garde in French art in the late nineteenth century. I argue that a similar autonomization of art occurred in the mid-twentieth century in the United States. I present studies in music and film to demonstrate the genesis of an American avant-garde during this period. This general process of autonomization until now has been neglected in the work of sociologists and historians on American art. My analysis shows that the genesis of principles of autonomy in the United States, unlike France, developed in what were considered the high and popular arts. These case studies reveal a failure in Bourdieu’s model to account for the role of culture industries and popular artists in the autonomization of modern art fields. I show how the American art field generated a subfield of autonomous art that included both avant-garde high art and independent popular art. This permanent subfield of avant-garde and independent art became central to future struggles over autonomy and innovation in American art.

Weber’s typology of religious orientations is incomplete. Much more attention has been paid to the other-worldly mysticism of monastic or contemplative withdrawal from society than the neglected category of inner-worldly mysticism. In Weber’s brief treatment, he concludes that inner-worldly mysticism results in passive acquiescence to social conditions. Alternately, we draw on examples from Mother Teresa and Dorothy Day to demonstrate not only how mysticism can be tightly linked to the social world, but how mystical practices can create meaningful social change. We argue that this change is possible because inner-worldly mysticism holds the potential to generate solidarity across traditional power and status divides. We illustrate how this potential for interaction-level change can spread horizontally; the number of small groups committed to carrying out inner-worldly mystical practices can grow until such groups spread across communities and beyond. In this way, the work of inner-worldly mystics can create meaningful change without ever vying for power on the macro political stage.

Unintended but not unanticipated consequences
Frank de Zwart
The concept “unanticipated consequences,” coined by Robert K. Merton (1936), has largely been replaced in current social science by its putative synonym, “unintended consequences.” This conflation suggests that “unintended” consequences are also “unanticipated,” effectively obscuring an interesting and real category of phenomena—consequences that are both unintended and anticipated—that warrant separate attention. The first part of this article traces the conflation of “unintended” and “unanticipated,” and explains why it occurred. The second part argues the need for a clear distinction between what is unintended and what is unanticipated, and it illustrates the failure of the present concept of “unintended consequences” to do so and the consequences that has for social and political analysis.

Social Science Research 52

Social Science Research, July 2016: Volume 52

Enclaves of opportunity or “ghettos of last resort?” Assessing the effects of immigrant segregation on violent crime rates
Ben Feldmeyer, Casey T. Harris, Jennifer Scroggins

Paternal incarceration and child-reported behavioral functioning at age 9
Anna R. Haskins

Why has medicine expanded? The role of consumers
Hui Zheng

A propensity score matching analysis of the relationship between victim sex and capital juror decision-making in North Carolina
Wesley G. Jennings, Tara N. Richards, M. Dwayne Smith, Beth Bjerregaard, Sondra J. Fogel

Social context and sexual intercourse among first-year students at selective colleges and universities in the United States
Jeremy E. Uecker

Effects of relationship duration, cohabitation, and marriage on the frequency of intercourse in couples: Findings from German panel data
Jette Schroder, Claudia Schmiedeberg

What drives the gender gap in charitable giving? Lower empathy leads men to give less to poverty relief
Robb Willer, Christopher Wimer, Lindsay A. Owens

Why bother with testing? The validity of immigrants’ self-assessed language proficiency
Aileen Edele, Julian Seuring, Cornelia Kristen, Petra Stanat

Contextual influence on condom use in commercial sex venues: A multi-level analysis among female sex workers and gatekeepers in Guangxi, China
Yiyun Chen, Xiaoming Li, Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhenzhu Tang, Tania B. Huedo-Medina

English, Spanish and ethno-racial receptivity in a new destination: A case study of Dominican immigrants in Reading, PA
R.S. Oropesa

Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?
Stephanie L. Kent, Jason T. Carmichael

Does it pay to attend a for-profit college? Vertical and horizontal stratification in higher education
Patrick Denice

Income inequality, distributive fairness and political trust in Latin America
Sonja Zmerli, Juan Carlos Castillo

A natural experiment of peer influences on youth alcohol use
Guang Guo, Yi Li, Craig Owen, Hongyu Wang, Greg J. Duncan

Gender and class housework inequalities in the era of outsourcing hiring domestic work in Spain
Pilar Gonalons-Pons

No place like home? Familism and Latino/a–white differences in college pathways
Sarah M. Ovink, Demetra Kalogrides

Does relative out-group size in neighborhoods drive down associational life of Whites in the U.S.? Testing constrict, conflict and contact theories
Michael Savelkoul, Miles Hewstone, Peer Scheepers, Dietlind Stolle

Income inequality and educational assortative mating: Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study
David Monaghan

Relational skill assets and anti-immigrant sentiments
Naeyun Lee, Cheol-Sung Lee

Parent–child leisure activities and cultural capital in the United Kingdom: The gendered effects of education and social class
Pablo Gracia

Civic communities and urban violence
Jessica M. Doucet, Matthew R. Lee

How do we assign ourselves social status? A cross-cultural test of the cognitive averaging principle
Matthew A. Andersson

Do information, price, or morals influence ethical consumption? A natural field experiment and customer survey on the purchase of Fair Trade coffee
Veronika A. Andorfer, Ulf Liebe

Does residential mobility improve educational outcomes? Evidence from the Netherlands
Carla Haelermans, Kristof De Witte

Clues of subjective social status among young adults
Francois Nielsen, J. Micah Roos, R.M. Combs

Asian children’s verbal development: A comparison of the United States and Australia
Kate H. Choi, Amy Hsin, Sara S. McLanahan

Understanding the devaluation of vulnerable groups: A novel application of Institutional Anomie Theory
Andreas Hovermann, Eva M. Groß, Andreas Zick, Steven F. Messner

Nurture net of nature: Re-evaluating the role of shared environments in academic achievement and verbal intelligence
Jonathan Daw, Guang Guo, Kathie Mullan Harris

Walking ATMs and the immigration spillover effect: The link between Latino immigration and robbery victimization
Raymond E. Barranco, Edward S. Shihadeh

On the move: Incarceration, race, and residential mobility
Cody Warner

Field of study variation throughout the college pipeline and its effect on the earnings gap: Differences between ethnic and immigrant groups in Israel
Sigal Alon

Should we trust survey data? Assessing response simplification and data fabrication
Jorg Blasius, Victor Thiessen

Social interactions and college enrollment: A combined school fixed effects/instrumental variables approach
Jason M. Fletcher

Training in two-tier labor markets: The role of job match quality
Yusuf Emre Akgunduz, Thomas van Huizen

Selling students short: Racial differences in teachers’ evaluations of high, average, and low performing students
Yasmiyn Irizarry

Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives’ earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites
Veena S. Kulkarni

Explanations of changes in church attendance between 1970 and 2009
Erik van Ingen, Nienke Moor

The Consequences of Job Displacement for Health: Moderating Influences of Economic Conditions and Educational Attainment
Jessica Pearlman

Primary status, complementary status, and organizational survival in the U.S. venture capital industry
Matthew S. Bothner, Young-Kyu Kim, Wonjae Lee

Risk factors for family time burdens providing and arranging health care for children with special health care needs: Lessons from nonproportional odds models
Jane E. Miller, Colleen N. Nugent, Louise B. Russell

Measurement, methods, and divergent patterns: Reassessing the effects of same-sex parents
Simon Cheng, Brian Powell

Curricular policy as a collective effects problem: A distributional approach
Andrew M. Penner, Thurston Domina, Emily K. Penner, AnneMarie Conley

Unemployment scarring by gender: Human capital depreciation or stigmatization? Longitudinal evidence from the Netherlands, 1980–2000
Irma Mooi-Reci, Harry B. Ganzeboom

Small groups, contexts, and civic engagement: A multilevel analysis of United States Congregational Life Survey data
Andrew L. Whitehead, Samuel Stroope

When children affect parents: Children’s academic performance and parental investment
Natasha Yurk Quadlin

Thinkers and feelers: Emotion and giving
Katie E. Corcoran

Losing confidence in medicine in an era of medical expansion?
Hui Zheng

“Double-dose” English as a strategy for improving adolescent literacy: Total effect and mediated effect through classroom peer ability change
Takako Nomi

Sunday, May 17, 2015

Journal of Quantitative Criminology 31(2)

Journal of Quantitative Criminology, June 2015: Volume 31, Issue 2

Risky Lifestyles, Low Self-control, and Violent Victimization Across Gendered Pathways to Crime
Jillian J. Turanovic, Michael D. Reisig & Travis C. Pratt
Objectives: The present study addresses whether unique or general processes lead to victimization across gendered pathways to crime. Specifically, the effects of low self-control and risky lifestyles—specified as various forms of offending and substance abuse—on violent victimization across developmental typologies for both men and women are examined. Methods: Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a two-stage cluster analysis is used to identify taxonomic groups for males and females that represent different pathways to crime. Multivariate negative binomial regression models are estimated to assess whether both self-control and risky lifestyles (e.g., criminal offending) are significant predictors of general forms of violent victimization across each identified cluster. Results: Low self-control and risky lifestyles significantly predict violent victimization across each of the taxonomic groups identified in the data, suggesting that these causal processes are universal rather than unique to any particular gendered pathway. Conclusions: Although inferences cannot be made for types of victimization beyond those observed in the study (e.g., intimate partner violence and sexual assault), the findings lend credence to the notion that self-control and risky lifestyles are critical to the study of violent victimization among men and women following different gendered pathways.

The Absorbing Status of Incarceration and its Relationship with Wealth Accumulation
Michelle Lee Maroto
Objectives: This study extends our knowledge on the negative effects of incarceration to the accumulation of wealth by examining whether, how, and how much incarceration affects home ownership and net worth. It also investigates how these outcomes vary with the time since a person was incarcerated and the number of incarceration periods, along with addressing potential mechanisms behind this relationship. Methods: I apply hybrid mixed effects models that disaggregate within- and between person variation to investigate incarceration’s relationship with home ownership and net worth, using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data from 1985 to 2008. I also incorporate a set of mediation models in order to test for indirect effects of incarceration on wealth through earnings, health, and family formation. Results: My results show that incarceration limits wealth accumulation. Compared to never-incarcerated persons, ex-offenders are less likely to own their homes by an average of 5 percentage points, and their probability of home ownership decreases by an additional 28 percentage points after incarceration. Ex-offenders’ net worth also decreases by an average of $42,000 in the years after incarceration. Conclusions: When combined with previous research on incarceration, my findings show that incarceration acts as an absorbing status, potentially leading to the accumulation of disadvantage. Although incarceration’s negative effects on wealth accumulation were partially mediated by its relationship with earnings and family formation, incarceration directly affected home ownership and net worth. In most cases, former inmates began with flatter wealth trajectories and experienced additional losses after incarceration.

How Far to Travel? A Multilevel Analysis of the Residence-to-Crime Distance
Jeffrey M. Ackerman & D. Kim Rossmo
Objectives: This study investigates whether individual- and area-level factors explain variation in the residence-to-crime distances (RC distance) for 10 offense types. Methods: Five years of police data from Dallas, Texas, are analyzed using multilevel models (hierarchical-linear/multi-level modeling). Results: Residence-to-crime distances for Dallas offenders varied notably across offense types. Although several area characteristics such as residential instability and concentrated immigration were associated with the overall variance in RC distance, neither these nor the individual-level characteristics used in our models explained the offense-type variance in the RC distance. Conclusions: Although individual- and neighborhood-level factors did not explain substantial variation in RC distance across the various offenses, neighborhood-level factors explained a significant portion of neighborhood-level variance. Other finding included a curvilinear effect of age on RC distance. The salience of these findings and their implications for future research and offender travel theory are discussed.

Monetary Benefits and Costs of the Stop Now And Plan Program for Boys Aged 6–11, Based on the Prevention of Later Offending
David P. Farrington & Christopher J. Koegl
Objectives: To assess the monetary benefits and costs of the Stop Now And Plan-Under 12 Outreach Project (SNAP-ORP), a cognitive–behavioral skills training and self-control program, in preventing later offending by boys. Methods: We assess the effect size of the SNAP-ORP program and convert this into a percentage reduction in convictions. We apply this reduction to the number and types of offenses committed by a sample of 376 boys between ages 12 and 20, taking account of co-offending, to estimate the crimes saved by the program. Based on the cost of each type of crime, we estimate the cost savings per boy and compare this with the cost of the SNAP-ORP program for low, moderate and high risk boys. We also scale up from convictions to undetected crimes. Results: Based on convictions, we estimate that between $2.05 and $3.75 are saved for every $1 spent on the program. Scaling up to undetected offenses, between $17.33 and $31.77 are saved for every $1 spent on the program. The benefit-to-cost ratio was greatest for the low risk boys and smallest for the high-risk boys. However, there were indications that the program was particularly effective for high risk boys who received intensive treatment. Conclusions: Our benefit-to-cost ratios are underestimates. On any reasonable assumptions, the monetary benefits of the SNAP-ORP program greatly exceed its monetary costs. It is desirable to invest in early prevention programs such as SNAP-ORP to reduce crime and save money.

On the Importance of Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in Experimentally-Evaluated Criminal Justice Interventions
Chongmin Na, Thomas A. Loughran & Raymond Paternoster
Objectives: This paper aims to suggest a framework to think of a more practical way to consider the broader impact of a program intervention beyond just its average, by considering the concept of treatment effect heterogeneity—how the same intervention may produce differential effects for different subgroups of individuals. Methods: Using an application of data on an experimental intervention from the Johns Hopkins Prevention Intervention Research Center, the current study demonstrates the contribution of more general growth mixture modeling approaches, such as Group-Based Trajectory Model (Nagin in Group-based modeling of development. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2005) and growth mixture modeling (Muthén in New developments and techniques in structural equation modeling. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 1–33, 2001) for assessing meaningful heterogeneous effects of a treatment across clusters or classes of individuals following distinct patterns of development over time. Results: The findings demonstrate how population-averaged treatment effects might underestimate substantively meaningful localized effects among more theoretically and policy relevant subgroups of individuals such as those with non-normative growth (high–low) and those with more room for improvement (low–low) in the development of self-control. Conclusions: We are calling for the assessment of a program in terms of both average and localized effects because we might wrongfully conclude that a given program is not effective when it in fact has a great impact, but only on the segments of population who need it the most.

Broken Neighborhoods: A Hierarchical Spatial Analysis of Assault and Disability Concentration in Washington, DC
Paul D. C. Bones & Trina L. Hope
Objective: This study seeks to better understand the relationship between neighborhood disability concentration and police calls for assault with a deadly weapon. Is this relationship the result of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, or does disability act independently of other ecological characteristics associated with high crime rates? Methods: The authors combine Census and other neighborhoodlevel data from Washington, DC to test a one-level random intercept hierarchical multiple regression model using Census tracts as a grouping variable. Disability concentration is measured by the percent of disabled residents living in a block group. Concentrated disadvantage is a composite measure including percent households below poverty line, percent families on public assistance, percent African American, percent female-headed households with children, and percent unemployed. Assault with a deadly weapon is a rate per 1,000 of police calls for assault in 2005–2006. Results: The effect of disability concentration is partially mediated by other ecological factors, but remains a significant predictor of neighborhood rates of reported assault. Each one-unit increase in percent disabled increased police calls for assault by 0.14 %. Conclusions: The results of the analyses suggest that although concentrated disadvantage does affect the relationship between disability concentration and crime, it exerts an independent effect on neighborhood rates of assault with a deadly weapon.

The Effect of Commuting on City-Level Crime Rates
Brian J. Stults & Matthew Hasbrouck
Objective: To examine the effect of commuting rates on crime rate estimates in US cities, and to observe potential changes in the effects of other common crime rate correlates after accounting for commuting. Methods: Crimes evaluated include homicide, aggravated assault, robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft. The sample includes US cities with a population of at least 100,000. The analysis first compares crime rankings using a rate based on the residential population and an alternative rate that takes into account daytime population changes due to commuting. Next, multivariate random effects panel models are used to evaluate the effect of commuting on crime rates, and to examine the extent to which the effects of other predictors change after controlling for commuting. Results: A city’s ranking can vary considerably depending on which denominator is used. Multivariate findings suggest that daily commuting rates are a significant, strong predictor of crime rates, and that controlling for commuting yields important changes in the effects of concentrated disadvantage, concentrated affluence, racial composition and residential instability. Conclusions: The impact of the commuting population on crime rate rankings underscores the importance of viewing crime rankings with great caution. Specifically, the residential crime rate overestimates relative risk for cities that attract a large daily population from outside the city limits. Findings provide support for the routine activities perspective, and suggest that future research examining city-level crime rates should control for commuting. Limitations to the study and directions for future research are discussed.

Sunday, May 10, 2015

Criminology 53(2)

Criminology, May 2015: Volume 53, Issue 2

The 2014 Sutherland Address: The Law Of Crime Concentration And The Criminology Of Place
David Weisburd
According to Laub (2004), criminology has a developmental life course with specific turning points that allow for innovations in how we understand and respond to crime. I argue that criminology should take another turn in direction, focusing on microgeographic hot spots. By examining articles published in Criminology, I show that only marginal attention has been paid to this area of study to date—often termed the criminology of place. I illustrate the potential utility of a turning point by examining the law of crime concentration at place, which states that for a defined measure of crime at a specific microgeographic unit, the concentration of crime will fall within a narrow bandwidth of percentages for a defined cumulative proportion of crime. By providing the first cross-city comparison of crime concentration using a common geographic unit, the same crime type, and examining a general crime measure, I find strong support for a law of crime concentration. I also show that crime concentration stays within a narrow bandwidth across time, despite strong volatility in crime incidents. By drawing from these findings, I identify several key research questions for future study. In conclusion, I argue that a focus on the criminology of place provides significant opportunity for young scholars and has great promise for advancing criminology as a science.

Friends With My Future Self: Longitudinal Vividness Intervention Reduces Delinquency
Jean-Louis Van Gelder, Eva C. Luciano, Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg And Hal E. Hershfield
In a field experiment, we use a novel method to test whether instilling a greater sense of vividness of the future self motivates people to act in a more future-oriented way and reduces their delinquent involvement. We manipulate vividness of the future self by having participants, a sample of high-school youth (N = 133), “befriend” an avatar representing their future self on a social network website. For 7 days, they reply to short messages from their future self designed to trigger thinking about that distant self. Using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), we find that participants who had been linked to their future self report less delinquent involvement, whereas controls did not. Furthermore, the results of a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure show that this effect is mediated by changes in vividness of the future self, such that increases in vividness lead to lower self-reported delinquency. We conclude that vividness of the future self holds promise not only as a cognitive explanation for the failure to make informed cost–benefit trade-offs but also for interventions aiming to reduce delinquency.

Historical Contingencies And The Evolving Importance Of Race, Violent Crime, And Region In Explaining Mass Incarceration In The United States
Michael C. Campbell, Matt Vogel And Joshua Williams
This article combines insights from historical research and quantitative analyses that have attempted to explain changes in incarceration rates in the United States. We use state-level decennial data from 1970 to 2010 (N = 250) to test whether recent theoretical models derived from historical research that emphasize the importance of specific historical periods in shaping the relative importance of certain social and political factors explain imprisonment. Also drawing on historical work, we examine how these key determinants differed in Sunbelt states, that is, the states stretching across the nation's South from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific, from the rest of the nation. Our findings suggest that the relative contributions of violent crime, minority composition, political ideology, and partisanship to imprisonment vary over time. We also extend our analysis beyond mass incarceration's rise to analyze how factors associated with prison expansion can explain its stabilization and contraction in the early twenty-first century. Our findings suggest that most of the factors that best explained state incarceration rates in the prison boom era lost power once imprisonment stabilized and declined. We find considerable support for the importance of historical contingencies in shaping state-level imprisonment trends, and our findings highlight the enduring importance of race in explaining incarceration.

Racially Homophilous Social Ties And Informal Social Control
Barbara D. Warner, Kristin Swartz And Shila René Hawk
Social disorganization theory argues that racial/ethnic heterogeneity is a key neighborhood characteristic leading to social disorganization and, consequently, higher levels of crime. Heterogeneity's effect is argued to be a result of its fragmentation of social ties along racial/ethnic lines, which creates racially homophilous social networks with few ties bridging racial/ethnic groups. Most studies of social ties in social disorganization models, however, have examined their quantity and left unaddressed the extent to which ties are within or across different racial groups. This study goes beyond previous studies by examining the effects of both racially homophilous and interracial friendship networks on informal social control. Using multilevel models and data from 66 neighborhoods with approximately 2,300 respondents, we found that heterogeneity actually increased the average percentage of residents with interracial friendship networks, but the percentage of residents with interracial networks decreased the likelihood of informal social control. In contrast, the percentage of residents with White racially homophilous networks increased the likelihood of informal social control. Examining the microcontext of individuals’ networks, however, we found residents with interracial ties reported higher likelihoods of informal social control and that this effect was enhanced in neighborhoods with higher percentages of non-White racially homophilous networks.

Police Response To Domestic Violence: Situations Involving Veterans Exhibiting Signs Of Mental Illness
Fred E. Markowitz And Amy C. Watson
Drawing on attribution theory, research on police discretion, and public attitudes toward mental illness, we examine attributional processes in police decision making in response to domestic violence situations involving veterans and nonveterans with signs of mental illness. Using data from experimental vignettes varying veteran status, victim injury, and suspect compliance administered to a sample of 309 police officers, the results indicate that 1) veterans are perceived as less responsible for troublesome behavior but more dangerous than nonveterans, 2) suspects’ veteran status has a significant effect on officers’ preference for mental health treatment versus arrest, and 3) part of the effect of veteran status on officer response is mediated by internal and external attributions for problematic behavior and by perceptions of dangerousness. The study empirically demonstrates countervailing processes in police decision making—recognition of the causes for troublesome behavior and the need for mental health treatment on the one hand and concern for community safety and enforcing the law on the other.

Women's Gender Performances And Cultural Heterogeneity In The Illegal Drug Economy
Heidi Grundetjern
Based on interviews with 32 female drug dealers in Norway, this study investigates different gender performances among women situated in the illegal hard drug economy—a context with strong gendered “rules of the game.” Using grounded theory methods, I have identified four predominant patterns in which women enact their gendered identities being part of the drug economy: performing emphasized femininity in the context of marginalization; performing street masculinity; employing a feminine business model; and last, flexible use of cultural repertoires. The findings suggest that different gender performances among dealers are rooted in variations in the cultural tool kits they have at their disposal. I find that the content of women's cultural tool kits varied with three sociodemographic factors: 1) age, 2) time of entrée to the drug economy, and 3) educational and employment history. Combined, these influenced the type of gender performances the dealers tended to use as well as their position in the drug market hierarchy. The research suggests that those dealers using cultural repertoires flexibly are the most successful as they skillfully employed the model best suited for the context they were in.

Delinquent Peer Influence On Offending Versatility: Can Peers Promote Specialized Delinquency?
Kyle J. Thomas
The consistent and robust relationship between peers and frequency of offending is often cited as evidence that friends play an important role in adolescent behavioral tendencies. But Warr (2002) has argued that the empirical support for peer perspectives remains equivocal in part because research has not demonstrated that individuals and their peers display similarities in the qualitative form of their delinquent behavior (i.e., the tendency to specialize in delinquent acts). By using data from the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) evaluation (N = 1,390) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) (N = 1,848), this study seeks to fill this void in the literature by examining whether having friends who display specialization in specific delinquent acts relative to other offense types predicts an individual's own tendency to display specializing in those same crime types. Consistent with peer influence perspectives, the results of multilevel latent-trait models (Osgood and Schreck, 2007) suggest that individuals who associate with friends who demonstrate specialization in violence, theft, and substance use are more likely to display greater levels of specialization in those offense types themselves.

Sunday, May 3, 2015

American Journal of Sociology 120(4)

American Journal of Sociology, January 2015: Volume 120, Issue 4

Race, Self-Selection, and the Job Search Process
Devah Pager and David S. Pedulla
While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African-American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original data sets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Additionally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African-Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process.

Emergent Ghettos: Black Neighborhoods in New York and Chicago, 1880–1940
John R. Logan, Weiwei Zhang, and Miao David Chunyu
This article studies in detail the settlement patterns of blacks in the urban North from before the Great Migration and through 1940, focusing on the cases of New York and Chicago. It relies on new and rarely used data sources, including census geocoded microdata from the 1880 census (allowing segregation patterns and processes to be studied at any geographic scale) and census data for 1900–1940 aggregated to enumeration districts. It is shown that blacks were unusually highly isolated in 1880 given their small share of the total population and that segregation reached high levels in both cities earlier than previously reported. Regarding sources of racial separation, neither higher class standing nor northern birth had much effect on whether blacks lived within or outside black neighborhoods in 1880 or 1940, and it is concluded that the processes that created large black ghettos were already in place several decades before 1940.

Where Do Immigrants Fare Worse? Modeling Workplace Wage Gap Variation with Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data
Donald Tomaskovic-Devey, Dustin Avent-Holt, and Martin Hällsten
The authors propose a strategy for observing and explaining workplace variance in categorically linked inequalities. Using Swedish economy-wide linked employer-employee panel data, the authors examine variation in workplace wage inequalities between native Swedes and non-Western immigrants. Consistent with relational inequality theory, the authors’ findings are that immigrant-native wage gaps vary dramatically across workplaces, even net of strong human capital controls. The authors also find that, net of observed and fixed-effect controls for individual traits, workplace immigrant-native wage gaps decline with increased workplace immigrant employment and managerial representation and increase when job segregation rises. These results are stronger in high-inequality workplaces and for white-collar employees: contexts in which one expects status-based claims on organizational resources, the central causal mechanism identified by relational inequality theory, to be stronger. The authors conclude that workplace variation in the non-Western immigrant-native wage gaps is contingent on organizational variation in the relative power of groups and the institutional context in which that power is exercised.

Game Changer: The Topology of Creativity
Mathijs de Vaan, Balazs Vedres, and David Stark
This article examines the sociological factors that explain why some creative teams are able to produce game changers—cultural products that stand out as distinctive while also being critically recognized as outstanding. The authors build on work pointing to structural folding—the network property of a cohesive group whose membership overlaps with that of another cohesive group. They hypothesize that the effects of structural folding on game changing success are especially strong when overlapping groups are cognitively distant. Measuring social distance separately from cognitive distance and distinctiveness independently from critical acclaim, the authors test their hypothesis about structural folding and cognitive diversity by analyzing team reassembly for 12,422 video games and the career histories of 139,727 video game developers. When combined with cognitive distance, structural folding channels and mobilizes a productive tension of rules, roles, and codes that promotes successful innovation. In addition to serving as pipes and prisms, network ties are also the source of tools and tensions.

Family Structure Instability, Genetic Sensitivity, and Child Well-Being
Colter Mitchell, Sara McLanahan, John Hobcraft, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Irwin Garfinkel, and Daniel Notterman
The association between family structure instability and children’s life chances is well documented, with children reared in stable, two-parent families experiencing more favorable outcomes than children in other family arrangements. This study examines father household entrances and exits, distinguishing between the entrance of a biological father and a social father and testing for interactions between family structure instability and children’s age, gender, and genetic characteristics. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and focusing on changes in family structure by age (years 0–9), the authors show that father exits are associated with increases in children’s antisocial behavior, a strong predictor of health and well-being in adulthood. The pattern for father entrances is more complicated, with entrances for the biological father being associated with lower antisocial behavior among boys and social father entrances being associated with higher antisocial behavior. Child’s age does not moderate the association; however, genetic information in the models sharpens the findings substantially.

Journal of Marriage and Family 77(3)

Journal of Marriage and Family, June 2015: Volume 77, Issue 3

Low Income & Non-Resident Fathers

How Much In-Kind Support Do Low-Income Nonresident Fathers Provide? A Mixed-Method Analysis
Jennifer B. Kane, Timothy J. Nelson and Kathryn Edin

Father Involvement and Childhood Injuries
Lenna Nepomnyaschy and Louis Donnelly

Effect of Low-Income Unmarried Fathers' Presence at Birth on Involvement
Jennifer L. Bellamy, Matthew Thullen and Sydney Hans

Of General Interest

The Production of Inequality: The Gender Division of Labor Across the Transition to Parenthood
Jill E. Yavorsky, Claire M. Kamp Dush and Sarah J. Schoppe-Sullivan

Getting “Bi” in the Family: Bisexual People's Disclosure Experiences
Kristin S. Scherrer, Emily Kazyak and Rachel Schmitz

Empathic Accuracy and Aggression in Couples: Individual and Dyadic Links
Shiri Cohen, Marc S. Schulz, Sabrina R. Liu, Muhannad Halassa and Robert J. Waldinger

Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Belonging in Stepfamilies
Valarie King, Lisa M. Boyd and Maggie L. Thorsen

Stepchildren's Views About Former Step-Relationships Following Stepfamily Dissolution
Marilyn Coleman, Lawrence Ganong, Luke Russell and Nick Frye-Cox

Intergenerational Exchanges of Middle-Aged Adults With Their Parents and Parents-In-Law in Korea
Kyungmin Kim, Steven H. Zarit, Karen L. Fingerman and Gyounghae Han

Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids
Sara E. Sandberg-Thoma, Anastasia R. Snyder and Bohyun Joy Jang

Theoretical Criminology 19(2)

Theoretical Criminology, May 2015: Volume 19, Issue 2

Special Issue: Crime and Criminal Justice in the Post-Soviet Region


Post-Soviet criminal justice: The persistence of distorted neo-inquisitorialism
Peter H Solomon, Jr
This article investigates the extent to which post-Soviet states have successfully reformed the system of criminal justice that they inherited from the USSR, and in particular reduced accusatorial bias and achieved procedural fairness. I argue that with the notable exception of Estonia, these countries have not eliminated the defining features of the Soviet criminal justice, what I call ‘distorted neo-inquisitorialism’—namely the excessive power of investigators and weakness of judges. The article examines in detail the reform of criminal justice in Russia, Estonia and Ukraine from 1992 to the present.

Architecture and attachment: Carceral collectivism and the problem of prison reform in Russia and Georgia
Laura Piacentini and Gavin Slade
This article looks at the trajectory of prison reform in post-Soviet Georgia and Russia. It attempts to understand recent developments through an analysis of the resilient legacies of the culture of punishment born out of the Soviet period. To do this, the article fleshes out the concept of carceral collectivism, which refers to the practices and beliefs that made up prison life in Soviet and now post-Soviet countries. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 revealed a penal culture in notable need of reform. Less obvious, in retrospect, was how over the course of a century this predominantly ‘collectivist’ culture of punishment was instantiated in routine penal practices that stand in opposition to western penalities. The article shows how the social and physical structuring of collectivism and penal self-governance have remained resilient in the post-Soviet period despite diverging attempts at reform in Russia and Georgia. The article argues that persistent architectural forms and cultural attachment to collectivism constitute this resilience. Finally, the article asks how studies of collectivist punishment in the post-Soviet region might inform emerging debates about the reform and restructuring of individualizing, cell-based prisons in western jurisdictions.

Political corruption in Eurasia: Understanding collusion between states, organized crime and business
Alexander Kupatadze
This article presents the problem of illicit collusion between states, organized criminals and white-collar criminals in the post-Soviet region, showing the blurring of these phenomena. It charts the development of political corruption and argues that this is a particular problem in the region due to the way state resources were sold off during the 1990s. The article however shows that the countries of the region now diverge significantly in terms of the extent and form that collusion takes. The goal of the article is to understand this variation. The article suggests that roughly two broad categories of state now exist in the post-Soviet region, excluding the Baltic States. These are broadly politically competitive states such as Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia and broadly politically non-competitive ones such as Russia, Belarus or Kazakhstan. I show that collusion takes differing forms across these categories due to the effect that the presence or absence of political competition has. In conclusion I argue that the post-Soviet region provides little evidence to believe that political competition actually reduces corruption and collusion. However, some cases from the region show that successful anti-corruption campaigns are more likely where there is more political contestation.

This is a comparative analysis of policing in three countries that have experienced a major political or social transition, Russia, Brazil, and China. We consider two related questions: (1) how has transition in each country affected the deployment of the police against regime opponents (which we term “repression”)? And (2) how has the transition affected other police misconduct that also victimizes citizens but is not directly ordered by the regime (“abuse”)? As expected, authoritarian regimes are more likely to perpetrate severe repression. However, the most repressive authoritarian regimes such as China may also contain oversight institutions that limit police abuse. We also assess the relative importance of both transitional outcomes and processes in post-transition policing evolution, arguing that the “abusiveness” of contemporary Brazilian police reflects the failure to create oversight mechanisms during the transition, and that the increasing “repressiveness” of Chinese police reflects a conscious effort by the Chinese Communist Party to reinforce the police in an era of economic liberalization. In contrast, Russian police are both significantly abusive and repressive, although less systematically “repressive” than Chinese police, and less “abusive” (or at least violent) than Brazilian police. Also, abuse and repression are less distinct in Russia than in the other cases. These results reflect the initial processes of decay and fragmentation, and subsequent partial recovery and recentralization, which Russian police have experienced since the Soviet collapse.

Racist violence in Russia has recently become a subject of interest to scholars and analysts of Russian politics. What are the similarities and differences between racist violence in Russia and the West? How does the level of Russian racist violence compare to other societies? Do racist hate groups in Russia have similar origins to groups in the West? This article considers these questions. I first demonstrate that Russia is indeed the most dangerous country in Europe for ethnic minorities, and argue that such violence is more ‘systematic’ (structured, ideologically coherent, patterned) than in other developed societies. The high level of violence against ethnic minorities in Russia is ‘over-determined’ by a combination of post-Soviet social and economic social changes, the brutalizing consequences of a long counter-insurgency campaign, and government passivity (and sometimes complicity) in the face of racist violence and hate speech. Thus, Russia’s systematic racist violence is analytically closer to outright ethnic conflict than to a form of criminal deviance that could aptly be termed ‘hate crime’.

This article examines a paradox that relates to the issue of homicide in Russia. On the one hand, official police statistics demonstrate a rapid decline in the homicide rate in Russia in the 2000s, which is consistent with the stable economic growth (in particular after the financial crisis of 1998) and a stable political environment during the presidency of Vladimir Putin. On the other hand, other conditions and processes (e.g. rampant corruption, predatory policing, political repressions, state violence against businesses, rising xenophobia and apathy) point to what Norbert Elias terms a ‘decivilizing process’, which is expected to be associated with a less precipitous decline in homicide or stable homicide rate in this period. In fact, newly available homicide estimates suggest that the homicide rate was higher than and did not decline at a pace suggested by the official police and mortality sources in the 2000s. Hence, this article has two main objectives. First, it discusses issues around homicide statistics in Russia and argues that the newly available homicide estimates represent the more accurate statistics. Second, it explores decivilizing process theory as a potential framework for explaining a high and steady homicide rate in Russia in the 2000s.

Review Article

Informality, crime and corruption in Russia: A review of recent literature
Leonid Kosals and Anastasia Maksimova