Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency 48(3)

Gang Set Space, Drug Markets, and Crime around Drug Corners in Camden
Travis A. Taniguchi, Jerry H. Ratcliffe, and Ralph B. Taylor
Gang set space is defined as ‘‘the actual area within the neighborhood where gang members come together as a gang’’ (Tita, Cohen, and Engberg 2005:280). The current article examines one subarea of gang set space: where gangs maintain street corner-centered open-air drug markets. Two types of corners—corner markets dominated by one gang and corner markets with multiple gangs—were contrasted with one another and with non-gang, non-dealing corners. Functional and corporate perspectives on gangs would both predict single gang corner markets to have lower violent and property crime than non-gang corners, whereas a traditional view would predict more violence. Territorial and economic competition models expect the highest crime levels around corner markets occupied by multiple gangs. Using Thiessen polygons to define the sphere of influence of each corner, and controlling for community demographic fabric and nearby crime, results showed higher crime counts around space used for drug distribution and higher still when the set space was occupied by multiple drug gangs. Further, crime counts were higher in less stable locales. The portions of drug gang set space centered on small, known, open-air corner drug markets, especially when control is questioned, link to more crime.

Gang Membership and Race as Risk Factors for Juvenile Arrest
Michael Tapia
This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang × Race interaction on those arrests. The focus on youth’s earliest point of contact with the juvenile justice system corresponds to the latest priority of the federal initiative on Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC). Using Poisson regression to analyze longitudinal data on a representative sample of U.S. teens, results support both main effects and interaction hypotheses. Gang membership, racial minority status, and their interaction each increase the risk of arrest, controlling for other demographic and legal items. Results suggest that bias against these groups is most pronounced with less serious crimes. Main effects for Black youth are stronger than for Hispanic youth, underscoring the importance of conducting tests for each minority group separately. Interactions for Black and Hispanic gang youth are equally robust, suggesting they warrant similar priority in policy initiatives to reduce DMC.

Theft in Price-Volatile Markets: On the Relationship between Copper Price and Copper Theft
Aiden Sidebottom, Jyoti Belur, Kate Bowers, Lisa Tompson, and Shane D. Johnson
Recently, against a backdrop of general reductions in acquisitive crime, increases have been observed in the frequency of metal theft offences. This is generally attributed to increases in metal prices in response to global demand exceeding supply. The main objective of this article was to examine the relationship between the price of copper and levels of copper theft, focusing specifically on copper cable theft from the British railway network. Results indicated a significant positive correlation between lagged increases in copper price and copper cable theft. No support was found for rival hypotheses concerning U.K. unemployment levels and the general popularity of theft as crime type. An ancillary aim was to explore offender modus operandi over time, which is discussed in terms of its implications for preventing copper cable theft. The authors finish with a discussion of theft of other commodities in price-volatile markets.

Influence or Convenience? Disentangling Peer Influence and Co-offending for Chronic offenders
Jean Marie McGloin and Wendy Povitsky Stickle
Both developmental and propensity theories root the etiology of chronic offending in factors other than peer influence. This does not mean that peers have no role in the expression of chronic offending, however. For instance, scholars have noted that offending with accomplices (i.e., co-offending) can reflect processes other than normative influence, such as selection and cooperation. Drawing from these notions, this investigation hypothesizes that chronic offenders will be less likely to cite peer influence as a reason for their deviance when compared to other offenders, whereas they will be equally likely to engage in group offending. The analysis uses information from the Racine cohort data and the results support the hypothesis. The discussion considers the implications of these findings for theory and research, as well as provides directions for future work.

Are Similar Sex Offenders Treated Similarly? A Conjunctive Analysis of Disparities in Community Notification Decisions
Deborah Koetzle Shaffer and Terance D. Miethe
Using a sample of sex offenders in the state of Washington, the current study examines the nature and magnitude of disparities in notification decisions among distinct groups of sex offenders. The method of conjunctive analysis is used to describe the extent to which similar types of sex offenders (i.e., groups of sex offenders that share similar sets of risk factors for re-offending) are treated similarly in notification decisions. The observed patterns of widespread disparities in these decisions among distinct composite profiles of sex offenders are then discussed in terms of their implications for future research on evaluating disparity in criminal processing, the collateral consequences of notification decisions, and ongoing public policy on the control and management of sex offenders.

Examining Juvenile Delinquency within Activity Space: Building a Context for Offender Travel Patterns
Gisela Bichler, Jill Christie-Merrall, and Dale Sechrest
Researchers modeling offender travel patterns typically assume that crime locations are well within the offenders’ activity space. Using information about the places frequented by 2,563 delinquent youths residing in Southern California, this study examined distances traveled to delinquent and nondelinquent hangout locations. Travel to known delinquent sites was substantively farther from home than expected and exhibited a segmented nonlinear curve, joining logarithmic and negative exponential functions. Significant variation was found for place-specific (trip distance) and person-specific (individual travel) distances by city classification, travel method, and age cohort; age effects disappeared in multivariate analyses. Several implications follow, highlighting the need to infuse a place-oriented approach to studying journey-to-crime.

Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency, August 2011: Volume 48, Issue 3

Criminology & Public Policy 10(3)

Special Issue on Mass Incarceration

The past, present, and future of mass incarceration in the United States
Marie Gottschalk

Monetary Sanctions As Misguided Policy

On cash and conviction
Katherine Beckett and Alexes Harris
Substantial fees and fines now are now routinely imposed by courts and other criminal justice agencies across the United States. This article summarizes research on the imposition of monetary sanctions in the United States and shows how they differ from European day fines. In the contemporary United States, court-imposed legal financial obligations supplement other criminal penalties in the majority of felony and misdemeanor cases. Judges impose many fees and fines at their discretion, and evidence from Washington State indicates that extralegal factors–including ethnicity–influence their assessment. Many states have also authorized jails, departments of correction, and probation offices to levy fees. In the United States, fees and fine amounts are determined by statute and are not tethered to defendants’ earnings. Recent studies suggest that the assessment of these penalties often generate long-term debts that are sizeable relative to expected earnings and impede reintegration.
This essay contends that the disadvantages of the widespread and discretionary imposition of substantial and supplementary financial penalties outweigh any benefits associated with this practice. Proponents of correctional and court fees argue that offenders—not taxpayers—should pay for the cost of punishing their misdeeds. The idea that offenders should foot the bill for criminal justice expenditures is a moral and political claim, one that likely has broad appeal. Nonetheless, this claim is in tension with at least two other important principles. First, public criminal law systems rest on the premise that crime is mainly a wrong against the state; violations of criminal law are thought to be significant enough to warrant the state's usurpation of the dispute resolution process. Compelling defendants to reimburse the state for its criminal justice expenditures is in tension with this principle. Moreover, unlike users of other services for which fees are assessed, penal targets are compelled to partake of these services; they cannot use fewer of them or look for an alternative provider of them. It can be argued that if the state compels penal targets to use (often expensive and ineffective) state “services,” then the government is obligated to pay for them. Indeed, this fiscal obligation is arguably an important check on government power.

Fixing the Broken System of Financial Sanctions
Traci R. Burch

Politicizing the case for fines
Pat O’Malley

A new punishment regime
Mary Fainsod Katzenstein and Mitali Nagrecha

The abolition of fines and fees
R. Barry Ruback

Justice Reinvestment

A private-sector, incentives-based model for justice reinvestment
Todd R. Clear
Justice reinvestment is a recent strategy designed to reduce the use of incarceration and divert the savings to improve the circumstances of communities that have high incarceration rates. More than a dozen states have mounted justice reinvestment projects. While support for justice reinvestment remains high, actual results have been mixed. In particular, the “community reinvestment” aspect of justice reinvestment has been disappointing. An approach that focuses on the private sector and creates incentives for private justice reinvestment could resolve some of these current limitations of the method.
Advocates for justice reinvestment would be able to address some of the problems in the approach by developing financial incentives that involve the private sector in justice reinvestment activity.

Encouraging innovation on the foundation of evidence
James H. Burch, II

Justice reinvestment and the use of imprisonment
Rob Allen

Making imprisonment unprofitable
James Austin

Making peace, not a desert
Michael Tonry

Justice reinvestment in community supervision
Mark A. R. Kleiman

Lessons for justice reinvestment from restorative justice and the justice model experience
Shadd Maruna

American Penal Overindulgence

Mass incarceration, legal change, and locale
Mona Lynch
In this article, I have three major aims. First, I examine in detail the role that changes to legal policies and practice have played in the rise of mass incarceration. I look at four distinct aspects of legal change and argue that the law (and legal change) in these varied forms is the engine that has driven prison growth and, therefore, must be addressed in explanations of this phenomenon. This discussion leads to my second major goal, which is to move beyond national-level explanations of American mass incarceration and call for a more unified empirically based understanding that highlights the localized social, cultural, and political factors that have contributed to the imprisonment explosion. I conclude by exploring how this kind of theorization provides a road map to a more localized policy reform strategy that aims to reduce our reliance on incarceration.

Addressing the political environment shaping mass incarceration
Marc Mauer

Leaving mass incarceration
Karol Lucken

Putting politics in penal policy reform
Heather Schoenfeld

The local and the legal (pages 725–732)
Lisa L. Miller

Prison Officer Unions

Prison Officer Unions and the Perpetuation of the Penal Status Quo
Joshua Page
An unintended consequence of mass imprisonment is the growth of prison officer unions. This article shows how successful corrections unions in states like California and New York obstruct efforts to implement sentencing reforms, shutter prisons, and slash corrections budgets. They impede downsizing-oriented reforms by generating or exacerbating fear among voters and politicians. Policy makers in key states must overcome resistance from prison officer unions to downscale prisons. Through a combination of accommodation and confrontation, policy makers can relax opposition from the officer organizations and undertake prison downsizing efforts without busting the unions.

Downsizing the carceral state
Heather Ann Thompson

American imprisonment and prison officers’ unions
Anthony N. Doob and Rosemary Gartner

Mass Imprisonment and Childhood Behavior Problems

Mass imprisonment and racial disparities in childhood behavioral problems
Sara Wakefield and Christopher Wildeman
This essay provides estimates of the influence of mass imprisonment on racial disparities in childhood well-being. To do so, we integrate results from three existing studies in a novel way. The first two studies use two contemporary, broadly representative data sets to estimate the effects of paternal incarceration on a range of child behavioral and mental health problems. The third study estimates changes in Black–White disparities in the risk of paternal imprisonment across the 1978 and 1990 American birth cohorts. Our research demonstrates the following: (1) The average effect of paternal incarceration on children is harmful, not helpful, and consistently in the direction of more mental health and behavioral problems. (2) The rapid increase in the use of imprisonment coupled with significant racial disparities in the likelihood of paternal (and maternal) imprisonment are linked to large racial disparities in childhood mental health and behavioral problems. (3) We find that mass imprisonment might have increased Black–White inequities in externalizing behaviors by 14–26% and in internalizing behaviors by 25–45%.
Our results add to a growing research literature indicating that the costs associated with mass imprisonment extend far beyond well-documented impacts on current inmates. The legacy of mass incarceration will be continued and worsening racial disparities in childhood mental health and well-being, educational attainment, and occupational attainment. Moreover, the negative effects of mass imprisonment for childhood well-being are likely to remain, even if incarceration rates returned to pre-1970s levels. Our results show that paternal incarceration exacerbates child behavioral and mental health problems and that large, growing racial disparities in the risk of imprisonment have contributed to significant racial differences in child well-being. The policy implications of our work are as follows: (1) Estimates of the costs associated with the current scale of imprisonment are likely to be severely underestimated because they do not account for the significant indirect effects of mass incarceration for children, for families, and for other social institutions such as the educational system and social service providers. (2) Policies that reduce incarceration rates for nonviolent offenders with no history of domestic violence will most dramatically reduce the effects of mass incarceration on childhood racial inequality. More research is needed to detail other important factors (e.g., crime type, criminal history, or gender of parent) that condition the effect of paternal incarceration on children. (3) Paternal incarceration effects target the most disadvantaged and vulnerable of children and are likely to result in long-term behavioral health problems. We propose a strengthening of the social safety net—especially as it applies to the poorest children—and programs that address the complicated needs of children of incarcerated parents.

The incarceration ledger
Robert J. Sampson

Is the devil in the details?
Candace Kruttschnitt

Taking children into account
Megan Comfort, Anne M. Nurse, Tasseli McKay and Katie Kramer

The consequences of incarceration
Michael Massoglia and Cody Warner

Countering the carceral continuum
Carla Shedd

Criminology & Public Policy, August 2011: Volume 10, Issue 3

Annual Review of Sociology 37

Prefatory Chapters

Reflections on a Sociological Career that Integrates Social Science with Social Policy
William Julius Wilson

Emotional Life on the Market Frontier
Arlie Hochschild

Theory and Methods

Foucault and Sociology
Michael Power

How to Conduct a Mixed Methods Study: Recent Trends in a Rapidly Growing Literature
Mario Luis Small

Social Theory and Public Opinion
Andrew J. Perrin and Katherine McFarland

The Sociology of Storytelling
Francesca Polletta, Pang Ching Bobby Chen, Beth Gharrity Gardner, and Alice Motes

Statistical Models for Social Networks
Tom A.B. Snijders

The Neo-Marxist Legacy in American Sociology
Jeff Manza and Michael A. McCarthy

Social Processes

Societal Reactions to Deviance
Ryken Grattet

Formal Organizations

U.S. Health-Care Organizations: Complexity, Turbulence, and Multilevel Change
Mary L. Fennell and Crystal M. Adams

Political and Economic Sociology

Political Economy of the Environment
Thomas K. Rudel, J. Timmons Roberts, and JoAnn Carmin

The Sociology of Finance
Bruce G. Carruthers and Jeong-Chul Kim

Political Repression: Iron Fists, Velvet Gloves, and Diffuse Control
Jennifer Earl

Emotions and Social Movements: Twenty Years of Theory and Research
James M. Jasper

Employment Stability in the U.S. Labor Market: Rhetoric versus Reality
Matissa Hollister

The Contemporary American Conservative Movement
Neil Gross, Thomas Medvetz, and Rupert Russell

Differentiation and Stratification

A World of Difference: International Trends in Women's Economic Status
Maria Charles

The Evolution of the New Black Middle Class
Bart Landry and Kris Marsh

The Integration Imperative: The Children of Low-Status Immigrants in the Schools of Wealthy Societies
Richard Alba, Jennifer Sloan, and Jessica Sperling

Gender in the Middle East: Islam, State, Agency
Mounira M. Charrad

Individual and Society

Research on Adolescence in the Twenty-First Century
Robert Crosnoe and Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson

Diversity, Social Capital, and Cohesion
Alejandro Portes and Erik Vickstrom

Transition to Adulthood in Europe
Marlis C. Buchmann and Irene Kriesi

The Sociology of Suicide
Matt Wray, Cynthia Colen, and Bernice Pescosolido


What We Know About Unauthorized Migration
Katharine M. Donato and Amada Armenta

Relations Between the Generations in Immigrant Families
Nancy Foner and Joanna Dreby

Urban and Rural Community Sociology

Rural America in an Urban Society: Changing Spatial and Social Boundaries
Daniel T. Lichter and David L. Brown


Family Changes and Public Policies in Latin America
Brígida García and Orlandina de Oliveira

Annual Review of Sociology, 2011: Volume 37

Social Forces 89(4)

Migration and Families

Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique
Victor Agadjanian
Carlos Arnaldo
Boaventura Cau

Migration, Remittances and Educational Stratification among Blacks in Apartheid and Post-Apartheid South Africa
Yao Lu
Donald J. Treiman

Organizations and Stratification

Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers?: Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets
Andrew S. Fullerton
Wayne J. Villemez

The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power
Kevin Stainback
Thomas N. Ratliff
Vincent J. Roscigno


The Needs of Others: Gender and Sleep Interruptions for Caregivers
Sarah A. Burgard

Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women
Shannon E. Cavanagh

Work and Attitudes

Origins and Outcomes of Judgments about Work
Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson
Jeylan T. Mortimer

Adolescent Cognitive Skills, Attitudinal/Behavioral Traits and Career Wages
Matthew Hall
George Farkas

Mental Health

The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging
Philippa Clarke
Victor Marshall
James House
Paula Lantz

Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-GroundedHypotheses from Computer Simulations
Amy Kroska
Sarah K. Harkness

Education and Work-Family Conflict: Explanations, Contingencies and Mental Health Consequences
Scott Schieman
Paul Glavin

Social Relations

Social Relations that Generate and Sustain Solidarity after a Mass Tragedy
James Hawdon
John Ryan

Who We'll Live With: Neighborhood Racial Composition Preferences of Whites, Blacks and Latinos
Valerie A. Lewis
Michael O. Emerson
Stephen L. Klineberg

Quantitative Methods

Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients
Scott Menard

Social Forces, June 2011: Volume 89, Issue 4

Theory and Society 40(4)

Wildcats in banking fields: the politics of financial inclusion
Simone Polillo

“Wall Street” meets Wagner: Harnessing institutional heterogeneity
Stoyan V. Sgourev

Self-limitation of modernity? The theory of reflexive taboos
Ulrich Beck & Natan Sznaider

The religious field and the path-dependent transformation of popular politics in the Anglo-American world, 1770–1840
Peter Stamatov

The Annals of the AAPSS 636

Patrimonial Power in the Modern World

Introduction: Patrimonialism, Past and Present
Mounira M. Charrad and Julia Adams

Patrimonial Alliances and Failures of State Penetration: A Historical Dynamic of Crime, Corruption, Gangs, and Mafias
Randall Collins

Plebiscitarian Patrimonialism in Putin’s Russia: Legitimating Authoritarianism in a Postideological Era
Stephen E. Hanson

Central and Local Patrimonialism: State-Building in Kin-Based Societies
Mounira M. Charrad

The Legacies of Patrimonial Patriarchalism: Contesting Political Legitimacy in Allende’s Chile
Gwynn Thomas

Patrimonialism, Elite Networks, and Reform in Late-Eighteenth-Century Poland
Paul D. Mclean

Where the State Feared to Tread: Conscription and Local Patriarchalism in Modern France
Dorit Geva

African Patrimonialism in Historical Perspective: Assessing Decentralized and Privatized Tax Administration
Edgar Kiser and Audrey Sacks

Political Familism in Lebanon
Suad Joseph

Interlocking Patrimonialisms and State Formation in Qing China and Early Modern Europe
Liping Wang and Julia Adams

Patrimony and Collective Capacity: An Analytical Outline
Ivan Ermakoff

Coda: American Patrimonialism: The Return of the Repressed
Richard Lachmann

The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, July 2011: Volume 636

Journal of Marriage and Family 73(4)

Brief Report

Reciprocal Associations Between Connectedness and Autonomy Among Korean Adolescents: Compatible or Antithetical?
Jeong Jin Yu

Special Section on Transnational Families

Transnational Families and the Well-Being of Children: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges
Valentina Mazzucato and Djamila Schans

Migration, Social Networks, and Child Health in Mexican Families
Katharine M. Donato and Ebony M. Duncan

Parenting From Abroad: Migration, Nonresident Father Involvement, and Children's Education in Mexico
Jenna Nobles

Back to Africa: Second Chances for the Children of West African Immigrants
Caroline H. Bledsoe and Papa Sow

Migrant Parents and the Psychological Well-Being of Left-Behind Children in Southeast Asia
Elspeth Graham and Lucy P. Jordan

A Mixed-Methods Social Networks Study Design for Research on Transnational Families
Laura Bernardi

Exchange on Gene–Environment Interplay, Family Relationships, and Child Adjustment

Gene–Environment Interplay, Family Relationships, and Child Adjustment
Briana N. Horwitz and Jenae M. Neiderhiser

Biopsychosocial Models and the Study of Family Processes and Child Adjustment
Susan D. Calkins

Families and Genomes: The Next Generation
Kirby Deater-Deckard

Understanding Family Process and Child Adjustment Through Behavioral Genetic Research: A Reply
Briana N. Horwitz and Jenae M. Neiderhiser

Of General Interest

Headed Toward Equality? Housework Change in Comparative Perspective
Claudia Geist and Philip N. Cohen

Market Earnings and Household Work: New Tests of Gender Performance Theory
Daniel Schneider

Who Lacks Support and Why? An Examination of Mothers' Personal Safety Nets
Kristen S. Harknett and Caroline Sten Hartnett

Intermarriage, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Social Standing Among Asian Women in the United States
Juan Chen and David T. Takeuchi

Journal of Marriage and Family, August 2011: Volume 73, Issue 4

British Journal of Criminology 51(4)

Masculinity, Marginalization and Violence: A Case Study of the English Defence League
James Treadwell and Jon Garland
In this article, we use three case studies, undertaken with young, white, working-class men involved in the English Defence League, to examine how they construct a specific form of violent masculinity. We argue that these accounts demonstrate that violence is socio-structurally generated but also individually psychologically justified, because these young men turn experiences of acute inequality and disenchantment into inner psychological scripts that justify their own ‘heroic’ status when involved in violent confrontation. We suggest that these feelings of disadvantage and marginalization prompt resentment and anger in young males who feel their voices are not being heard. This disenchantment manifests itself through externalized hostility, resentment and fury directed at the scapegoat for their ills: the Islamic ‘other’.

‘Guys! Stop Doing It!’: Young Women's Adoption and Rejection of Safety Advice when Socializing in Bars, Pubs and Clubs
Oona Brooks
Concern about the increase in alcohol consumption amongst young women, drink spiking and drug-assisted sexual assault have culminated in a renewed focus on safety advice for young women. This paper examines young women's responses to safety advice, and their associated safety behaviours, by drawing upon interview and focus group data from a qualitative study with 35 young women (18–25 years) in relation to their safety in bars, pubs and clubs. The findings reveal that young women's behaviours were complex and contradictory in that they resisted, adopted and transgressed recommended safety behaviours. This raises interesting questions about both the practical and the theoretical implications of contemporary safety campaigns, challenging the prevailing focus on women's behaviour and the gendered discourse invoked by such campaigns.

Democracy and Demonstration in the Grey Area of Neo-Liberalism: A Case Study of Free Los Angeles High School
Tim Goddard and Randy Myers
School punishment policies in the United States are increasingly prone to exclusion. In an effort to rid the school of risky disturbances, these measures push disruptive students out of the educational environment or into the criminal justice system. The task of educating these excluded youth has undergone a process of neo-liberal ‘responsibilization’, as communities are charged with dealing with drop-outs and push-outs from mainstream schools as well as system-involved youth. This is illustrated by a case study of a community school established by a social movement organization in Los Angeles, United States. While neo-liberalism is touted as a vehicle for crime control and efficiency, in practice, the outcomes of responsibilization can set the stage for progressive take on education to burgeon as well as mobilization against ‘law and order’ policies and social abandonment that come with adherence to market principles.

Policing Markets: The Contested Shaping of Neo-Liberal Forensic Science
Christopher James Lawless
This paper addresses the effects of recent political and economic trends on the construction of forensic science in England and Wales. Using documentary sources and fieldwork, I show how neo-liberal initiatives have differentially reconstructed relationships between forensic scientists and the police. I argue that this stems from contested interpretations of scientific integration that have selectively appropriated elements of neo-liberalism. Neo-liberal reform of forensic science has, however, exposed actors to new risks, culminating in the UK Government's announcement to close the Forensic Science Service. Yet, rather than representing the end of ‘marketization’, debates concerning the organization of forensic science have entered a new phase. These hold significant implications for understanding the relationship between crime, science and advanced liberal governance.

Resisting Administrative Tolerance in the Netherlands: A Rightist Backlash?
Peter Mascini and Dick Houtman
Representatives of rightist-conservative political groups have denounced the Dutch policy of administrative tolerance (‘gedoogbeleid’) as a left-libertarian excess. On the basis of a representative survey among the Dutch population (N = 1,892), we demonstrate, however, that such resistance is not typically ‘rightist’ or ‘conservative’. Even though conservatives are more likely to oppose administrative tolerance as a general policy type, this is merely because they associate it with the toleration of illegal activities by marginal individuals. Whereas they do oppose the latter more than political progressives do, the latter are, for their part, more critical than conservatives about the toleration of illegal activities by official agencies.

A Symposium of Reviews of Public Criminology? by Ian Loader and Richard Sparks
Contributors: Nils Christie, Elliott Currie, Helena Kennedy, Gloria Laycock, Rod Morgan, Joe Sim, Jacqueline Tombs, Reece Walters